The Energy, Natural Resources, and the Environment Program (ENREP) conducts research on the economic and environmental effects of energy production and use. ENREP collaborates with Stanford’s Energy Efficiency Center at the Precourt Institute for Energy to investigate how electricity and other energy markets can minimize waste, reduce environmental damage, and move toward sustainability. ENREP researchers focus on the factors that affect energy demand. They work with government decisionmakers to develop policies that use economic incentives to promote efficiency and protect the environment. ENREP scholars have studied how market mechanisms can encourage use of renewable energy sources such as wind power and how cap-and-trade programs can control the carbon emissions responsible for climate change. They have also cooperated with California officials to assess state energy programs such as the system for sharing savings from conservation.