Goulder’s research examines the environmental and economic impacts of U.S. and international environmental policies. He has focused on policies to reduce emissions of "greenhouse gases" that contribute to climate change, and on "green tax reform"—revamping the tax system to introduce taxes on pollution and reduce taxes on labor effort or investment. In other work he has examined the interplay between environmental policies and technological innovation. Goulder has conducted analyses for several government agencies and environmental organizations. At Stanford he teaches courses in environmental economics and policy. He graduated from Harvard College with an A.B. in Philosophy, and received his Ph.D. in Economics from Stanford.