Working for Female Managers: Gender Hierarchy in the Workplace
We study workers’ reactions to changes in the gender composition of top management during
a merger or acquisition, finding that an increase in the number of female top managers within
their occupation makes male workers more likely to quit, and female workers less likely to
quit. These effects vary across occupations. In particular, male workers’ aversion to female
managers is strongest in occupations where the average female share nears 50 percent. The
effects also vary with age, becoming smaller among younger males, but increasing with
education level. We find little evidence that these preferences are driven by pecuniary effects.